The ligaments of the intermetacarpal articulations unite the metacarpal bones: the dorsal, interosseous, and palmar metacarpal ligaments. The ligaments of the carpometacarpal articulations unite the carpal bones with the metacarpal bones: the pisometacarpal ligament and the palmar and dorsal carpometacarpal ligaments. The ligaments of the intercarpal articulations unite the carpal bones: the radiate carpal ligament; the dorsal, palmar, and interosseous intercarpal ligaments; and the pisohamate ligament. The ligaments of the wrist properly unite the ulna and radius with the carpus: the ulnar and radial collateral ligaments, the palmar and dorsal radiocarpal ligaments, and the palmar ulnocarpal ligament. Whereas flexion and extension consist of movements around a pair of transverse axes – passing through the lunate bone for the proximal row and by the capitate bone for the distal row – palmar flexion happens mainly in the radiocarpal joint and dorsiflexion within the midcarpal joint.
Combined with movements in each of the elbow and shoulder joints, intermediate or mixed movements within the wrist approximate these of a ball-and-socket joint with some necessary restrictions, similar to maximum palmar flexion blocking abduction. Throughout palmar flexion, the proximal carpal bones are displaced toward the dorsal side and towards the palmar side throughout dorsiflexion. Throughout radial abduction, the scaphoid is tilted towards the palmar facet, which allows the trapezium and trapezoid to approach the radius. Because the trapezoid is rigidly hooked up to the second metacarpal bone, to which the flexor carpi radialis and extensor carpi radialis are attached, radial abduction correctly pulls this combined construction towards the radius. Dorsiflexion is produced by in order of significance extensor digitorum, extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor indicis, extensor pollicis longus, and extensor digiti minimi.
It’s produced by extensor carpi ulnaris, flexor carpi ulnaris, extensor digitorum, and extensor digiti minimi. Radial abduction is produced by the importance of extensor carpi gk figure radialis longus, abductor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis longus, flexor carpi radialis, and flexor pollicis longus. Palmar flexion is produced by so as of importance flexor digitorum superficialis, flexor digitorum profundus, flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor pollicis longus, flexor carpi radialis, and abductor pollicis longus. Flexion tilting in the direction of the palm, so known as palmar flexion, and extension tilting closer to the back of the hand, so called dorsiflexion, is feasible with a full range of 170 degrees. But as Street & Monitor pointedly noted: A 60-horsepower shortfall is plenty of horsepowers. Ford shot back that Mustang aimed at those that valued total finesse, not straight-ahead thrust.